Rural water environment management experience in developed countries
In the early 20th century, mainstream western economics regarded the problem of rural water pollution as a product of "market failure." After the 1970s, developed countries have successively established pollution emission trading systems, and major developed countries have gradually implemented rural water environment governance methods that are mainly based on market regulation and supplemented by administrative means. Since the middle of the last century, Britain, New Zealand, Canada and other countries have gradually established a new rural water environment management model in line with the market development direction. The core is to abandon government-led intervention and use market forces to promote rural environmental governance. Expand the role of market allocation of resources, including the marketization of public services in rural environments, and participation in the governance of privatization of enterprises, to more effectively use social resources and create the greatest value.
The United States attaches importance to exerting market forces to strengthen rural water environmental protection. For point source and non-point source pollution in agricultural production process, support enterprises to carry out rural environmental protection technology innovation and promote sustainable agricultural development; for rural human settlement environment improvement and waste management, market-based methods such as government purchase of services and franchising are usually used Provide market-oriented services and management by environmental protection companies. The "green compensation mechanism" incorporates agricultural non-point source pollution control into government green expenditure through economic incentives.
France, Germany and other countries encourage enterprises to strengthen technological innovation and market promotion of agricultural environmental protection, accelerate the promotion and application of new technologies and techniques for agricultural environmental protection, strengthen farmers' skills training, promote the transformation of agricultural production methods to circular and ecological, and realize green agricultural development To reduce agricultural production and rural environmental pollution. Japan and South Korea have continuously increased their investment in urban and rural environmental pollution control technologies. Through technological innovation and achievement transformation, their environmental pollution control technologies have reached the world's advanced level, and ecological recycling agriculture has developed rapidly. http://euhowblog.com
World-renowned rivers and lakes pollution market control measures
The Rhine is located in central Europe. It originates in the central Swiss Alps, flows through the borders of Austria, Switzerland, and France, crosses Germany to the Netherlands, and enters the North Sea. The main causes of the deterioration of the Rhine water quality over the years are population growth, resource consumption, agricultural development along the way, and the use of pesticides and artificial chemicals. The Rhine is a river that crosses the river basin. It flows through many countries and is difficult to manage. To this end, in 1950, the Netherlands, West Germany, Luxembourg, and Switzerland jointly established the "Rhine River International Pollution Prevention Commission." By investigating the nature, extent, and source of the Rhine river pollution, it introduced social environmental protection companies and used market-oriented measures to strengthen governance. . At the same time, regular meetings of ministers of the Rhine countries are held to hear the implementation of pollution control plans and policies in various countries, and formulate related agreements and treaties.
The Thames is the main source of water in the cities of London and Oxford. In 1800-1850, the main reason for the deterioration of the water quality of the Thames was the large-scale industrial pollution, and the sudden increase in population led to an increase in pollution load. In the 1960s, the British government established the Thames Water Authority to adopt market-oriented governance mechanisms to strengthen the governance and management of the Thames Basin. Its governance funds mainly come from water supply charges and the use of market financing. The Thames Basin distributes pollution discharge rights based on the river's environmental capacity, implements a pollution permit system, and sets water quality protection targets based on regional ecological characteristics, and fully implements the "polluter pays" principle.