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    Home > Technical Information

    Detailed explanation of anaerobic-anaerobic-aerobic commissioning process of coking wastewater

    Source: Author: Time: 2019-07-12 Views: Times

    Biological debugging

    1 Activated sludge index
    Mixed liquid suspended solids (MLSS) concentration: It refers to the total weight of activated sludge solids per unit volume of mixed liquid, including: microorganisms, auto-oxidation residues, non-degradable organics and inorganics.
    Mixed liquid volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) concentration: It refers to the concentration of organic solid matter per unit volume of mixed liquid, excluding the inorganic salt part, which can accurately represent the number of active parts of activated sludge.
    Sludge sedimentation ratio (SV%): The percentage of the volume of the precipitated sludge formed by the aeration tank mixed liquid standing in a 100ml graduated cylinder for 30 minutes to the original mixed liquid volume. It can reflect the amount of sludge during normal operation of the aeration tank, can be used to control the discharge of excess sludge, and can also detect sludge expansion or other abnormal conditions in time.
    Sludge Index (SVI): The meaning of this indicator is the volume of sludge per gram of dry sludge after the mixed liquid at the outlet of the aeration tank is allowed to stand for 30 minutes. It can reflect the sludge adsorption, cohesion and precipitation, usually SVI is between 80-150.
    2 Cultivation and domestication of activated sludge
    The debugging of activated sludge biochemical system is firstly inoculated with EMO high-efficiency strains. Efficient strains can greatly shorten the time for sludge culture and domestication. The cultivation and acclimatization were performed in an aerobic tank.
    euhowblog.com Activated sludge treatment system's first job before the official start of production is the cultivation and domestication of sludge.
    Culture of activated sludge: It is to provide suitable growth and reproduction environment for the microorganisms and bacteria that form activated sludge, to ensure the required nutrients, oxygen supply (aeration), appropriate temperature and pH to make it multiply and form active sludge. And finally reach the required sludge concentration for sewage treatment.
    Domestication of activated sludge: It is to adapt the cultivated activated sludge to the water quality and quantity of sewage to be treated. During the sludge acclimatization process, two major changes occur in the microorganisms in the sludge. One is that the number of microorganisms that can use the organic pollutants in the sewage gradually increases, and those that cannot be used gradually die and are eliminated. The second is that microorganisms that can adapt to the water quality, under the induction of organic matter in the wastewater, produce inducing enzymes that can decompose and use the organic matter.
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    3 cultivation and domestication of activated sludge
    1. Aerobic pond activated sludge culture and domestication
    (1) Cultivation of sludge
    Dilute and mash the EMO high-efficiency bacteria with sewage, consider the impurities in it, and put it into the aerobic tank. When the aerobic tank is put into water, adjust the water level to about 1/2 of the normal water level. The sewage water level increased to the normal water level. When the bacteria were added, the aeration system began to operate, and the aeration was performed (that is, continuous aeration under the conditions of no water and no drainage). After a few hours, the aeration was stopped. Gas, the sediment drains the clear night on the half pond, and then adds sewage. After a few hours of suffocation, the aeration is stopped, the sediment drains the clear night on the half pond, and then the sewage is added, and the slush exposure is repeated, and the sludge properties are observed during The control of dissolved oxygen is kept between 2 and 4 mg / L. Until the appearance of fuzzy flocculent sludge. During the cultivation period, domestic sewage is mainly used. If it is industrial sewage, it is necessary to pay attention to the proportion of nutrients in the sewage.
    When sludge floc appears in the aerobic tank, intermittently add sewage to the aeration tank, and the amount of water added to the aeration tank should ensure that the volume of water in the tank can be changed by 1/2 of the volume of the tank every day. Progress, gradually increase the amount of water so that it can be replaced once a day during the later period of culture. About two hours after the effluent from the aeration tank entered the secondary sedimentation tank, the sludge began to flow back.
    (2) Domestication of sludge
    Gradually increase the proportion of treated sewage in the feed water, or increase the concentration, so that the organism gradually adapts to the new environment. At the beginning, the added amount of treated sewage can be 20-30% of the design load of the aeration tank to achieve better treatment. After the efficiency, continue to increase, after each increase in load, you must wait for the biological adaptation and consolidation before continuing to increase until the full load.
    2. Culture and domestication of anaerobic sludge
    (1) Dilute and mash the EMO high-efficiency bacteria with sewage, consider the impurities in it, raise the sewage in the anaerobic pool to 1/2 of the normal water level, and anaerobic the sewage in the pool 1-2 Day (with sludge culture in the aerobic section at the back);
    (2) The intermittent water inflow is started, and the sludge load rate is controlled at 0.05 ~ 0.2kgCOD / (kgVSS.d).
    (3) When the sludge gradually adapts to the nature of the wastewater, the sludge gradually has the ability to remove organic matter. When the COD removal rate reaches more than 30%, the inlet volume loading rate can be gradually increased. It is advisable to increase the volume loading rate by about 0.5 kgCOD / (m3.d) each time. At this time, you can transition from intermittent water intake to continuous Water inflow, but the concentration and volume of water inflow should be controlled to maintain stable growth.
    (4) With the increase of the load, the sludge in the reactor gradually changes from a loose state to a floc with better sedimentation performance, and the methane production activity of the sludge also increases accordingly.
    (5) During the debugging process, it is necessary to ensure that the system load increases steadily at an increase rate of 20% to 30%. Each time the load is adjusted, the removal rate must be stabilized for 3 to 4 days after the removal rate reaches 30%, and then the load is increased.
    4 dosing of chemicals
    (1) Phosphate is added to the adjustment tank to adjust the nutritional balance in the sewage;
    (2) Soda ash is added to the aerobic tank to adjust the pH of the sewage in the tank;
    (3) Flocculant is added to the air flotation tank to improve suspended matter and oil in the discharged sewage. Adding sludge dewatering system, it plays the role of coagulation and conditioning sludge properties.
    5 Abnormal situation of activated sludge and countermeasures
    Sludge swelling: The normal activated sludge has good sedimentation performance, and the moisture content is above 98%. When the sludge is deteriorated, the sludge is not easy to settle, the SVI value is high, the structure of the sludge is loose and the volume is expanded, and the color is also changed. This is the sludge swelling. Sludge swelling is mainly caused by the proliferation of filamentous bacteria. Generally, there are more carbohydrates in the sewage, lack of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, insufficient dissolved oxygen, high water temperature or low pH value, which can easily cause a large number of filamentous bacteria to multiply and cause sludge expansion. In addition, overload, sludge age If it is too long or if the concentration of organic matter is too small, it will also cause sludge swelling. Poor sludge discharge will easily cause the combined water sludge to swell.
    In order to prevent sludge swelling, the operation management should be strengthened first. Frequent monitoring of sewage water quality, dissolved oxygen in aeration tank, sludge sedimentation ratio, sludge index, and microscopic observation, etc. If abnormalities are found, preventive measures need to be taken. Generally The aeration volume can be adjusted and increased, and the mud can be discharged in time. It is possible to take water in sections to reduce the load of the secondary sink. The solution to sludge swelling is to take measures against the causes of sludge swelling. When anoxic or high water temperature can increase the aeration or reduce the water intake to reduce the sludge load, or reduce the sludge concentration appropriately to make aerobic Reduction, etc. If the sludge load is too high, the sludge concentration can be appropriately increased to adjust the load, and if necessary, the water supply should be stopped and exposed for a period of time. If nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron are deficient, add nitrified sludge or nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron. If the pH is too low, add lime and adjust the pH. If the sludge loss is large, add ferric chloride. To help coagulate and stimulate the growth of bacterial micelles, bleach powder or liquid chlorine can also be added. Http://euhowblog.com inhibits the growth of filamentous bacteria, and can especially control the swelling of combined water sludge. Can also add asbestos powder, diatomaceous earth, clay and other inert substances to reduce the sludge index.
    Sludge disintegration: The sludge disintegration is the treatment of turbid water, miniaturization of sludge floc, and deterioration of treatment effect. The cause of this abnormal phenomenon is a problem in operation, or it may be that toxic substances are mixed in the sewage. Improper operation, such as excessive aeration, will destroy the biological nutrition balance of sludge, reduce the amount of microorganisms and lose their activity, reduce the adsorption capacity, reduce the mass density of flocs, and partly become feather-like sludge that is not easy to settle and treat water quality Cloudiness, decreased SVI index, etc. When toxic substances are present in the sewage, the microorganisms are inhibited or injured, and the purification function is reduced or stopped completely, thereby rendering the sludge inactive. Generally, the cause can be observed and judged through a microscope. When identifying the cause of the operation, the amount of sewage, reflux sludge, air volume, and sludge status, as well as SVI, sludge concentration, DO, sludge load, etc. Indicators are monitored and adjusted. When toxic substances are mixed in the sewage, it should be considered that this is new industrial wastewater and the source needs to be identified for treatment.
    Sludge decay: In the second settling tank, the anaerobic fermentation production gas may be generated due to the long-term stagnation of sludge, which will cause the bulk sludge to float. It is different from the sludge denitrification and floatation, which causes the sludge to become black and produce foul smell. At this time, not all of them are floating, and most of the sludge is also discharged or refluxed normally. Only the sludge deposited in the dead corner for a long time stagnates to decay and float. Preventive measures are: installing scum removal equipment that does not overflow the sludge; eliminating dead corners of the sedimentation tank; increasing the slope of the bottom of the pond or improving sludge scraping facilities so that the sludge does not stagnate at the bottom of the pond.
    Sludge floating: The sludge floating in the secondary sedimentation tank is not caused by corruption, but lies in that the sludge age is too long in the aeration tank, the nitrification process is high, and denitrification has occurred in the sedimentation tank. Nitrogen is released as a gas from the attached sludge, thereby reducing the specific gravity of the sludge and causing the whole block to float. At this time, the sludge return flow or residual sludge discharge should be increased.
    Foam problem: Foam is generated in the aeration tank. The main reason is that there is a large amount of detergent or other foaming substances in the sewage. Foam can bring certain difficulties to production operations, such as affecting the operating environment and taking away a large amount of sludge. When mechanical aeration is used, it can also affect the oxygen flushing ability of the impeller. Measures to eliminate foam include: inject water in stages to increase the concentration of the mixed liquid, spray water or add an antifoam agent.
    6 Anaerobic system abnormal operation and treatment
    1. Anomalous biogas bubbles (gas-water separation position at the top of the water tank or reactor)
    ◆ Continuous appearance of bubbles similar to the beer after the lid is opened, which is a symptom of the serious deterioration of the anaerobic state, which may be due to excessive sludge discharge, insufficient sludge in the pond, or excessive organic load, or insufficient stirring. The solution is Stop the sludge discharge, strengthen the stirring, and reduce the amount of water entering;
    ◆ A large number of bubbles are violently ejected, but the gas production is normal. Because the scum layer is too thick in the pond, biogas is accumulated under the layer. Once the biogas passes through the scum layer, a large amount of biogas is ejected. The countermeasure is to break the scum layer. Stir and open the slag discharge tube;
    ◆ No air bubbles are generated, and the water inflow can be temporarily reduced or stopped.
    2. Reduced gas production
    ◆ The concentration of feedwater is low, and the substrate of methanogen is insufficient. The feedwater concentration should be increased;
    ◆ The discharge of anaerobic sludge is too large, which reduces the methane bacteria in the reaction tank, and the sludge discharge should be reduced;
    ◆ The temperature is too low, increase the amount of steam and increase the temperature;
    ◆ Accumulation of organic acids and insufficient alkalinity. The amount of water should be reduced and the change of alkalinity in the pond should be observed. If it cannot be improved, add alkalinity, such as: lime, caustic soda, calcium carbonate, etc.
    3. Deteriorated water quality
    The deterioration of the supernatant water quality is manifested in the serious floating of the sludge and the increase of the BOD and SS concentrations in the effluent. The reasons may be insufficient sludge discharge, excessive solid load, insufficient digestion, and excessive stirring. The solution is to find out the reasons and solve them separately.
    SBR process debugging 1SBR process introduction
    The process is to control the five stages of water filling, reaction, sedimentation, drainage and sludge, and idle to realize the biochemical treatment of wastewater. SBR reactors can be divided into three types: restricted aeration, unrestricted aeration, and semi-restricted aeration. Restricted aeration means that the sewage enters the aeration tank only for mixing without aeration; unrestricted aeration means aeration while entering the water; semi-restricted aeration means that the aeration of the sewage enters in the middle of the aeration. During the reaction stage, the aeration can always be aerated. For biological denitrification, it can also be stirred after aeration, or alternately aerated and stirred; the remaining sludge can be discharged during the idle stage, or it can be discharged during the water intake stage or the reaction stage.
    2 Formulation of commissioning plan
    The operation mode of the SBR reactor should be determined according to the nature of the wastewater. The easily degradable organic wastewater should adopt the restricted aeration and water intake method, and the http://euhowblog.com difficult to degrade organic wastewater should adopt the unrestricted intake water method. The time control of each step of its cycle is related to the final processing index requirements. For example: if only the treatment effects of CODCr and BOD5 are considered in the treatment, the aeration time can be appropriately reduced to achieve the purpose of energy saving; if the removal of N and P is considered, the aeration time needs to be at least 4 hours; to treat industrial wastewater and toxic and harmful For wastewater-targeted operation, it is recommended to use short agitation and long aeration.
    Different sewage treatment projects have different commissioning schemes and operation steps. Taking a fur factory production wastewater treatment project as an example, the description is as follows:
    1. Vaccination:
    Calculate the total amount of inoculated sludge required according to the effective volume of the reactor and the sludge concentration (generally 3-4 g / l). The effective pool capacity of the SBR pool is: 7 4 4 = 112m3. Based on the volume of each pond being 100m3, the moisture content of the inoculated sludge is 97%, the amount of sludge to be pulled outside is 20--26m3, and the inoculation per pond is 10--13m3.
    2. Domestication and start:
    a, batching: in the adjustment tank (effective tank capacity: 8 6 2.4 = 115m3). Because the raw sewage contains a certain amount of toxic and harmful substances, the feed liquid is prepared according to the ratio of raw sewage: diluted water = 1: 4, that is, 20m3 of raw sewage, and 80m3 of diluted water is added. According to the quality of the sewage water, the nutrition of the prepared feed solution may be insufficient, and a certain amount of nutrient source (fecal water) needs to be added. (Generally required preparation of the feed solution has CODCr = 1500-2000mg / l, PH = 6-9, SS≤200mg / l temperature: 10-35 ℃), open the air valve of the adjustment tank, and make the aeration of the adjustment tank uniform.
    b. Feeding operation: After mixing the materials for half an hour, they can be directly fed into the SBR reactor. Each SBR tank is fed with 90m3 of feed. After 1 hour of feeding, continuous aeration is started for about 3-4 days (pay attention to observe the sludge). Traits, subject to recovery activity of inoculated sludge).
    c. Drainage: When the sludge recovers its activity, stop aeration and let it stand for 1.0 --- 1.5 hours. Release the supernatant, about 50--60m3.
    d. Repeat steps a, b, and c. The refueling interval is once a day.
    e. When the sludge activity is significantly enhanced, and the sedimentation performance is good, the sludge contains a large number of bacterial micelles and ciliate protozoa, such as bellworms, clumps, and ciliates, SV = 10 --- 30% , Indicating that the sludge has matured and the mandatory domestication period has basically ended.
    f. Note: During the aeration process, measure the dissolved oxygen, pH and sludge sedimentation ratio at least twice a day; record the measurement data. The general normal indicators are: DO = 1—2mg / lPH = 6--9SV = 10 --- 30%.
    g. This compulsory domestication phase takes about 5-7 days.
    3. Debugging operation:
    After the sludge is reactivated and forced domestication is completed, the domestication trial operation phase can be entered. At this stage, not only should the appropriate bacteria be cultivated, but the optimal operating conditions of the activated sludge system must also be determined.
    The first stage:
    A. Ingredients: in the adjustment tank. The feed liquid is prepared according to the ratio of raw sewage: diluted water = 1: 3, that is, 30m3 of raw sewage, and 90m3 of diluted water is added. A certain amount of nutrient source (fecal water) can be appropriately added according to the situation. Open the air valve of the adjustment tank to make the aeration of the adjustment tank uniform. Monitor the water quality indicators (CODCr, PH, water temperature, SS).
    B. After forced domestication is completed, stop aeration and record the static time. Determine the static time (usually 0.5 --- 1.0 hours) according to the solid-liquid separation and record the static time.
    C. Drain the supernatant for about 40--50m3. Take 100ml of the supernatant and place it in an Erlenmeyer flask for monitoring the COD value.
    D. Feeding operation: The prepared feed liquid is added to the SBR reactor at a flow rate of 10m3 / h, and the feed volume is 50m3 / pool, and the two pools run alternately. Start with a cycle of 22 hours. After 1 hour of feeding, the aeration was started, and the aeration was continued for 4 hours, and the aeration was stopped for 0.5 hours. The aeration was continued for 4 hours, and the aeration was stopped for 1.0 hour. The aeration was further 3 hours, and the aeration was stopped for 0.5 hours. Hours, stop aeration for 1.0 hour, and then aeration for 2 hours, let it stand for 0.5-1.0 hours, start drainage about 50m3, record the drainage time (about 0.5 hours), and leave it for 0.5-1.0 hours. DO and SV% should be monitored in time during aeration; DO should be monitored and recorded before re-aeration after stopping the exposure. The general index is DO = 1-2mg / lPH = 6-9SV = 10-30% Water temperature: 10-35 ℃.
    E. Repeat the above steps A, B, C, and D for 3 to 4 days. Pay attention to observe the sludge properties and growth conditions, if necessary, use a microscope to observe the microbial growth in the activated sludge, and timely monitor the drainage water quality indicators (DO, CODCr, PH, SS) and make a record.
    second stage:
    The operating cycle can be adjusted according to the first stage debugging conditions as follows, or it can be operated according to the previous stage cycle, which is mainly based on the treated water quality and sludge performance.
    A. Ingredients: in the adjustment tank. Prepare the feed liquid according to the ratio of raw sewage: diluted water = 1: 2, that is, 40m3 of raw sewage, and add 80m3 of diluted water. Depending on the situation, a certain amount of nutrient source (fecal water) can be appropriately added or not added. Open the air valve of the adjustment tank to make the aeration of the adjustment tank uniform. Monitor the water quality indicators (CODCr, PH, water temperature, SS).
    B. Feeding operation: The prepared feed liquid is added to the SBR reactor at a flow rate of 10m3 / h, the feeding volume is 50m3 / pool, and the two pools run alternately. Run every 12 hours. After 1 hour of feeding, the aeration was started, the continuous aeration was 3 hours, and the aeration was stopped for 0.5 hours; the aeration was further 3 hours, and the aeration was stopped for 0.5 hours; the aeration was further 2 hours, and the aeration was continued for 0.5 to 1.0 hours. , Record the drainage time (about 0.5 hours), leave it for 0.5-1.0 hours. DO and SV% should be monitored in time during aeration; DO should be monitored and recorded before re-aeration after stopping the exposure. http://euhowblog.com The general index is DO = 12mg / lPH = 6-9SV = 10-30% Water temperature: 10-35 C.
    C. Repeat steps A and B for 3 to 4 days. Pay attention to observe the sludge properties, if necessary, use a microscope to observe the microbial growth in the activated sludge, and timely monitor the drainage water quality indicators (DO, CODCr, PH, SS) and make a record.
    The third stage:
    A. Ingredients: in the adjustment tank. The feed liquid is prepared according to the ratio of raw sewage: diluted water = 1: 1, that is, 60m3 of raw sewage, and 60m3 of diluted water is added. Open the air valve of the adjustment tank to make the aeration of the adjustment tank uniform. Monitor the water quality indicators (CODCr, PH, water temperature, SS).
    B. Feeding operation: The prepared feed liquid is added to the SBR reactor at a flow rate of 10m3 / h, the feeding volume is 50m3 / pool, and the two pools run alternately. Run for 12 hours as a cycle, start aeration after 1 hour of feeding, continuous aeration for 3 hours, stop aeration for 0.5 hours; aeration for another 3 hours, stop aeration for 0.5 hours; aeration for another 2 hours, static Sink for 0.5-1.0 hours, start drainage about 50m3, record the drainage time (about 0.5 hours), and leave it idle for 0.5 --- 1.0 hours. DO and SV% should be monitored in time during aeration; DO should be monitored and recorded before re-aeration after stopping the exposure. General index DO = 1-2mg / lpH = 6-9SV = 10-30% Water temperature: 10--35 ℃.
    C. Repeat steps A and B for 3 to 4 days. Pay attention to observe the sludge properties, if necessary, use a microscope to observe the microbial growth in the activated sludge, and timely monitor the drainage water quality indicators (DO, CODCr, PH, SS) and make a record.
    Fourth stage:
    A. Ingredients: in the adjustment tank. Directly enter the original production sewage, and a certain amount of nutrient source (fecal water) can be appropriately added or not added according to the situation. Open the air valve of the adjustment tank to make the aeration of the adjustment tank uniform. Monitor the water quality indicators (CODCr, PH, water temperature, SS).
    B. Feeding operation: Add the prepared feed liquid to the SBR reactor at a flow rate of 10m3 / h, with a feed volume of 50m3 / pool, first run in a cycle of 12 hours, and start aeration after 1 hour of feeding , Continuous aeration for 3 hours, stop aeration for 0.5 hours; another aeration for 3 hours, stop aeration for 0.5 hours; another aeration for 2 hours, calm for 0.5-1.0 hours, start drainage about 50m3, record the drainage time (about 0.5 hours ), Idle for 0.5 --- 1.0 hours. DO and SV% should be monitored in time during aeration; DO should be monitored and recorded before re-aeration after stopping the exposure. The general indicators are: DO = 1—2mg / lPH = 6--9SV = 10 --- 30% Water temperature: 10--35 C.
    C. Repeat steps A and B for three days. Pay attention to observe the sludge properties, if necessary, use a microscope to observe the microbial growth in the activated sludge, and timely monitor the drainage water quality indicators (DO, CODCr, PH, SS) and make a record.
    Fifth stage:
    According to the records of the above four stages of debugging, find the best conditions for the survival of the flora, choose the best operating cycle, the best operating mode, and complete the debugging.
    A. Ingredients: in the adjustment tank. Directly enter the production water, open the air valve of the adjustment tank, and make the aeration of the adjustment tank uniform. Monitor the water quality indicators (CODCr, PH, water temperature, SS).
    B. Feeding operation: Run according to the selected optimal operation cycle and operation mode. Control aeration and stagnation time. DO and SV% should be monitored in time during aeration; DO should be monitored and recorded before re-aeration after stopping aeration. The general indicators are: DO = 1—2mg / lPH = 6-9SV = 10-30% Water temperature: 10--35 C.
    C. Repeat steps A and B for 3 to 4 days. Pay attention to observe the sludge properties, if necessary, use a microscope to observe the microbial growth in the activated sludge, and timely monitor the drainage water quality indicators (DO, CODCr, PH, SS) and make a record. If the effluent CODCr is about 300mg / l and the sludge is in a steady growth state, SV = 30%, it can be considered that the commissioning is over. Into the formal full load operation phase.
    4, matters needing attention:
    a. In order to successfully complete the commissioning work, it is necessary to ensure the stable operating conditions of the SBR reactor at this stage, to avoid large fluctuations in water concentration, suspended solids, and pH, and to cause a large impact load on the SBR reactor, resulting in sludge. deterioration.
    b. During operation, DO, PH and SV water quality indicators must be measured at least once in each operation cycle. Before and after changing the concentration of pollutants, a full set of indicators of the water quality in the reactor and the water entering the reactor must be monitored, with emphasis on CODCr, SS, and PH to ensure the reasonableness of the sludge load in the reactor.
    c. At the beginning of each time when the amount of sewage added is changed, it is necessary to pay attention to observe the properties of the sludge and record the adaptation time, so as to provide a reference for the next change in the amount of sewage added.
    d. When the SV% of the sludge is ≥30, a small amount of sludge should be discharged, and the amount of water for each sludge discharge is about 10-15m3.

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