"The newly revised" Water Pollution Control Law "has many highlights and new requirements, but in the implementation process, some provisions lack supporting laws and policies." "It is recommended that during the inspection of law enforcement, the inspection of sludge treatment and utilization should be strengthened and vigorously implemented. Promote the recycling of sewage and sludge "...
A few days ago, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress held the first plenary meeting of the Law Enforcement Inspection Team of the Water Pollution Prevention and Control Law, which officially launched the first law enforcement inspection this year. Different from the past, this time the law enforcement inspection borrowed the "outer brain" for the first time. The introduction of a third party in the law enforcement inspection to evaluate the implementation and effect of the law has become an innovative approach to the work methods and methods of the NPC Standing Committee.
Before the law enforcement inspection team set off, members of the inspection team had in-depth exchanges with a number of experts in the industry. The experts opened their eyes and made suggestions and suggestions on the problems found in the evaluation of the implementation of the Water Pollution Control Law from their respective professional perspectives.
"External brain" provides technical support
Water is the mother of all things, the basis of existence, and the source of civilization. Water security is closely related to each of us. The water pollution problems that have emerged over the years have always affected people. This time, the Standing Committee of the National People ’s Congress took up the “sharp sword” of the law, “declared war” on water pollution, carried out law enforcement inspections of the Water Pollution Prevention and Control Law, and helped win the clear water defense battle with actual actions.
The law enforcement inspection focuses on practical results. In order to make the National People ’s Congress ’supervision more intensive and authoritative, the Standing Committee of the National People ’s Congress has invited“ outer brains ”to provide technical support and professional reference for law enforcement inspections by adopting a digital and precise supervision method. .
According to Li Xiaohong, President of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, in January this year, the Chinese Academy of Engineering received a letter from the National People's Congress Environmental and Resources Commission entrusting them to conduct a third-party assessment of the implementation of the Water Pollution Control Law. In response, the evaluation project convened more than 20 academicians and more than 100 experts in different fields to form an evaluation expert group. The assessment work is problem-oriented, focusing on four aspects: the implementation of water pollution prevention standards, the implementation of drinking water safety and groundwater environmental protection, the implementation of water pollution prevention measures, and the implementation of water pollution prevention and supervision.
After researching and judging, the assessment expert group reached a preliminary conclusion. "The newly revised" Water Pollution Control Law "has been implemented since January 1, 2018, and has achieved overall good results, and has played a positive role in the orderly advancement of ecological environmental protection in the country." Li Xiaohong said, specifically, drinking water and Groundwater protection measures were advanced in an orderly manner, which effectively improved the compliance rate of drinking water. At present, the completion rates of water source protection zones designated at prefecture-level cities and counties nationwide are 97.7% and 94.7%, respectively; water pollution prevention measures have been advanced in an orderly manner, and water environmental quality has been gradually improved, and 1009 black odors in 36 key cities have been basically eliminated. The proportion of water bodies to be eliminated is 95%; the supervision capacity and guarantee mechanism of key river basins have been continuously strengthened, and the coordinated protection and coordination mechanism of the river system and the water environment of key river basins has progressed in an orderly manner.
The results are worthy of recognition, but the problem cannot be avoided. Li Xiaohong pointed out that the newly revised "Water Pollution Prevention Law" has many highlights and new requirements, but in the implementation process, some provisions lacked supporting policies and regulations, resulting in the implementation of unclear borders, insufficient operability, and difficulty in achieving the expected goals. "For example, the law requires groundwater pollution sources, including industrial clusters, tailings ponds, etc. to take anti-seepage measures to prevent groundwater pollution. However, at the operational level, there are no specific regulatory regulations and technical specifications, what kind of anti-seepage and technologies are adopted Requirements and monitoring methods, how to check and check the main points are not clear. "
Water standard system needs to be improved
Establishing water environmental standards is an important means for water pollution prevention and water environmental protection. Experts believe that China's water environment standard system is not yet complete.
Li Xiaohong said that the newly revised "Water Pollution Prevention Law" requires local governments to formulate water environmental quality standards for important rivers and lakes according to specific economic and technical conditions. However, in the specific implementation, most places have not formulated local water environment quality standards according to local conditions. "China's natural conditions and pollution effects have significant regional differences. The current" Quality Standards for Surface Water Environment "stipulates unified national indicators and their limits, which may lead to the problems of" over-protection "and" under-protection. " Work on the construction of different quality standards and differences. "
Qian Yi, a member of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, also talked about standards. "The surface water environmental quality standard specifies 24 water quality targets, but the commonly used indicators are much less. Usually only a few items such as COD and total nitrogen are concerned." She said that toxic and harmful pollutants, including many emerging pollutants such as Drugs and personal care products, endocrine disruptors, etc. have high biological activity and toxicity and should be paid attention to, but these indicators are not in the current standards.
She suggested that in this law enforcement inspection, attention should be paid to toxic and harmful substances in water bodies and their impacts, and various measures such as modifying water environmental standards and strengthening source control of pollutants should be used to effectively reduce toxic and harmful pollutants on the water environment. And people's health.
Hou Li'an, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, paid particular attention to the issue of rural domestic sewage discharge standards. It is not comprehensive, and there are some regions with high standards and a one-size-fits-all phenomenon. " He also said that the complementarity of related standards or plans for rural household waste, livestock and poultry manure, aquaculture, pesticides and fertilizers with local land policies and sewage treatment standards needs to be further improved.
Need to strengthen emission reduction at source
The industrial production process is an important source of water pollution. "In the history of China's water pollution prevention and control, 'close, stop, merge, and transfer' has been used to reduce industrial wastewater discharge. Practice has proved that these measures have limited effects and are more contradictory to the development of the economy and people's lives." Qian Yi believes that the implementation Clean production and reducing resource consumption and pollution emissions at the source of pollution are the correct ways to comply with the strategy of ecological civilization construction and sustainable development. "China has vigorously promoted clean production as early as the 1990s, and has achieved significant results in many industries and factories, but the performance of different industries and different factories is very different. Moreover, the development of clean production is endless and must be continued To improve and continue to implement. "
Agricultural and rural water pollution issues also need to be addressed. Hao Fanghua, a professor at Beijing Normal University, said that the newly revised "Water Pollution Control Law" has added a number of clauses to the "Agricultural and Rural Water Pollution Control" section, focusing on prevention at source. "In the prevention and control of agricultural non-point source pollution, we should avoid copying the urban water pollution control ideas. We must adapt to local conditions and strengthen the ecological control ideas." She believes that the vegetation buffer zone is the most characteristic and effective measure for the international control of agricultural non-point source pollution. The buffer zone can trap more than 50% of nitrogen and 65% to 95% of phosphorus in agricultural non-point source pollutants. "Vegetation buffer zone, as the connection point in the system management of 'Landscapes, Forests, Fields, Lakes and Grasses', is a part of green mountains and green mountains, and needs to be planned from the height of ecological civilization construction."
Hao Fanghua suggested that the provisions of the "Water Pollution Prevention Law" on "developing ecological buffers and isolation zones along rivers and lakes, and other ecological environment treatment and protection projects" should be strengthened, and the prevention and control of agricultural and rural non-point source pollution should be considered as "mountain, forest, lake, and grass As part of system governance, we will make overall considerations to achieve effective cascading, reduce the non-point source pollution load through reasonable layout of river and lake shoreline restoration, vegetation buffer zone construction and other projects, and at the same time improve the self-purification capacity of water bodies to achieve pollution control and aquatic ecological restoration. Synergy. Include the construction of river and lake vegetation buffer zones in major national ecological restoration projects, promote the demonstration construction of key river basins, coordinate the relationship between buffer zone construction and existing ecological construction projects such as afforestation, soil and water conservation, and integrated watershed management. The ecological characteristics of the river basin, the characteristics of plant communities and the characteristics of pollutants, the construction of vegetation buffer zones according to local conditions, and gradually forming an ecological strategic pattern of "one river and one belt" and "one lake and one belt".
Information disclosure requires rules
Drinking water safety involves people's health and social stability. The newly revised "Water Pollution Prevention Law" has made new provisions on drinking water safety in many aspects.
Tsinghua University professor Zhang Xiaojian said that a safe drinking water source is the most basic condition for safe drinking water. The newly revised "Water Pollution Prevention and Control Law" has added the requirements for investigation and evaluation of pollution risks of drinking water sources. "In the past, it was mostly to investigate and rectify water sources after drinking water safety problems occurred in some places. The" Water Pollution Prevention and Control Law "now requires proactive, comprehensive, and comprehensive investigation and evaluation, which is a major system. Sexual measures, which set specific legal requirements for solving historical problems, strengthening prevention, and implementing supervision. "
The Water Pollution Prevention Law stipulates that "the relevant departments of local people's governments at or above the county level shall disclose information on the safety status of drinking water to the society at least once a quarter." Zhang Xiaojian reminded, "It should be noted that there are at least two words. This is only the most basic requirement. It is qualified and far from excellent." At present, the methods of publicizing water quality information for urban water supply vary from place to place. There is a big difference with the level of detail. In some places, there are problems such as fuzzy information and time lag according to the minimum requirements. In order to implement the water quality information disclosure requirements of the Water Pollution Prevention and Control Law, it is recommended that the relevant competent authorities formulate implementation rules for information disclosure and specify the requirements.
Qu Jiuhui, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, is also concerned about drinking water safety. He believes that the key to solving the problem is to further improve the legal system. "The" Water Pollution Prevention Law "can only solve the problem of" holding the bottom line "of drinking water sources. The" Urban Water Supply Regulations "(1994) are no longer suitable for the requirements of the new era. We should refer to international experience and combine China's national conditions to accelerate the promotion of relevant legislation and strengthen Legal supervision, further emphasized the utility attributes of drinking water supply, regulate the behavior of the water supply market, further clarify the main responsibilities of governments at all levels and the operational responsibilities of water supply enterprises, effectively protect the legitimate rights and interests of consumers, and further improve the formation mechanism and adjustment of water supply prices Mechanism, give full play to the role of the market mechanism, further strengthen the law enforcement supervision of water supply safety, strengthen accountability and performance evaluation of performance. "