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    How to deal with rural sewage? Just look at foreign experience

    Source: Author: Time: 2016-07-29 Views: Times

    Data show that China ’s rural water consumption accounts for about 60% of the country ’s total water consumption, and the amount of domestic sewage generated each year reaches more than 8 billion tons. However, the high sewage treatment rate in cities and towns and the rural sewage treatment level is still very low In many areas, emissions are even being treated at zero.

    Rural sewage treatment is also regarded by many as the new blue ocean in China's sewage treatment field, and it will be the main battlefield of China's sewage treatment in the future. However, issues such as how to treat rural sewage in China and what system technology to choose are still to be explored. This article summarizes the advanced technology experience of foreign rural sewage treatment for foreign students' reference.

    United States-high-efficiency algae pond system, decentralized sewage treatment system

    Sparsely populated American countryside

    Sparsely populated American countryside

    High-efficiency algae ponds are improved through traditional stable ponds, which have high removal rates of COD, BOD5, ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorus, and pathogens. The harvested higher aquatic plants are good fertilizers. The advantages of high-efficiency algae ponds are less construction work, low investment and operating costs, and easy management and maintenance.

    Decentralized sewage treatment systems are more commonly used in rural America. This technology is often used in communities or villages with lower population densities, because a centralized centralized sewage treatment plant that transports domestic sewage from these places will require extra high cost.

    In addition, in recent years, many scattered farmers have also used automatic wells and underground septic tanks to treat sewage. Through a deep sewage well and groundwater pipe, the solid or semi-solid materials in the domestic sewage are deposited at the bottom of the well, and the precipitated sewage is used to irrigate the grassland.

    France——Earthworm ecological filter

    Romantic French countryside

    Romantic French countryside

    The earthworm ecological filter was developed in France in recent years. It utilizes the function of earthworms to swallow organic matter, enhance soil permeability and the synergistic effect of earthworms and microorganisms. The wastewater treatment technology designed has high decontamination capacity. , While also reducing the amount of residual sludge.

    The earthworm ecological filter treatment system integrates primary sedimentation tank, aeration tank, secondary sedimentation tank, sludge return equipment and aeration equipment at the same time, which greatly simplifies the sewage treatment process. Its advantages are strong anti-shock load, simple operation and management, and easy blocking.

    Germany-Split-type sewage treatment system

    Fresh German countryside

    Fresh German countryside

    The more commonly used method of rural sewage treatment in Germany is the split sewage treatment system. One type of this sewage treatment system is a decentralized municipal infrastructure system, that is, an advanced membrane bioreactor is constructed in remote rural areas without access to a drainage network. Rainwater and sewage are usually collected separately and then passed through the advanced membrane bioreactor. Purify sewage.

    The second diversion type sewage treatment method is the PKA wetland sewage treatment system. This process mainly passes the rural domestic sewage through water pipes, and then flows into the sedimentation tank. After 4 layers of screening in the sedimentation tank, it is purified by PKA wetland, and then discharged to the standard or used for farmland irrigation.

    In addition, a variety of sewage classification and treatment systems have also been applied. The main principle is to separate sewage into rainwater, graywater, and blackwater and treat them separately.

    Japan-Purification tank technology

    Nationalistic Japanese Village

    Nationalistic Japanese countryside

    Japan's cities and villages adopt different sewage treatment laws and regulations. Cities apply the "Sewer Law" and rural areas mainly apply the "Sewage Tank Law". Rural sewage in Japan is mainly treated through three modes, namely household purification tanks, village drainage facilities and collective dormitory treatment facilities.

    Japan's purification tank technology is mainly used in remote areas where the drainage network cannot be covered and sewage cannot be integrated into centralized facilities for unified treatment. The basic principle is to use the natural purification principle of sewage in soil and paddy fields to mimic the self-purification function in the material circulation process in nature. By adding working fillers to natural materials such as fallen leaves, decayed waste wood, charcoal, and stones, it uses microorganisms to adsorb and decompose sewage Harmful substances.

    Purification tank technology has played an important role in the treatment of decentralized domestic sewage in Japan. In the 1960s, with the modernization of social life, the demand for toilets increased, and the technology of purification tanks began to develop rapidly.

    South Korea-Wetland Wastewater Treatment System


    Scattered layout of rural Korea

    Rural residents in South Korea live scattered, and their sewage is not suitable for centralized treatment. The wetland wastewater treatment system has been widely studied and applied in Korea due to its low energy consumption, low operating costs, and low maintenance costs.

    The mechanism of wetland sewage treatment system is based on the ecological function of "land-plant system". South Korea can use sewage after wetland treatment to irrigate rice, which can achieve a better purification effect. The commonly used wetland plants are Lu Ping, Typha, rush, etc., which have strong decontamination ability and good effect on pathogen removal.

    In addition, the sewage biofilm method is also a more commonly used process in rural sewage treatment processes in South Korea.

    Australia-FILTER sewage treatment system

    Vast Australian countryside

    Vast Australian countryside

    The Australian FILTER sewage treatment system is mainly proposed by experts from the Australian Scientific and Industrial Research Organization in recent years. It is a sewage reuse system that combines filtration, land treatment and underground drainage.

    The FILTER sewage treatment system is based on land treatment. The sewage is used to irrigate crops. After being treated by crops and land, the sewage is discharged through a concealed pipe. This system can not only meet the crop's demand for water and nutrients, but also reduce the concentration of pollutants in sewage to meet discharge standards.

    New Zealand-in-situ processing system

    Quiet New Zealand countryside

    Quiet New Zealand countryside

    Most of New Zealand's wastewater in-situ treatment systems are mature septic tanks. The New Zealand Ministry of the Environment has formulated national environmental standards for sewage in-situ treatment systems, put forward mandatory requirements, and clarified management responsibilities for sewage in-situ treatment systems.

    Beginning July 1, 2010, owners of New Zealand sewage in-situ treatment systems require a “suitable permit” to prove that their sewage in-situ treatment system is operating properly and maintained to appropriate standards.

    This sewage treatment system mainly absorbs pollutants through natural processes, but when a large number of pollutants are generated at the same time, its cumulative effect will negatively affect human health and the environment. Therefore, it is suitable for rural areas with scattered populations and relatively small amounts of sewage, not for areas with large populations and environmental sensitivity.


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