current position:Home > Water purification equipment > Water softening equipment, circulating water treatment equipment > Well water softening treatment equipment
Water softening equipment, as the name implies, is a device that reduces water hardness. It mainly removes calcium and magnesium ions in water. When the water is deep well water or the hardness of the water source is very large, the use of water softening equipment is to remove calcium and magnesium in water. Ion content reduces calcium and magnesium ions in water. In the process of softening water, the softened water equipment cannot reduce the total salt content in the water. It has been widely used in hot water boiler systems, heat exchange systems, industrial cooling systems, central air conditioning systems, and other water equipment systems.
The main working principle of water softening equipment is to use anions and cations to soften. Pass the raw water through the anion and cation converter to remove the calcium, magnesium, sodium and other ions in the water. The water coming out is just water molecules. Without other molecules, then scale can be effectively prevented.
Ion exchange diagram
When the feed water is deep well water or the hardness of the water source is very large, the role of using the water softening device is to remove the calcium and magnesium ion content in the water and reduce the calcium and magnesium ions in the water. If there is no water softener or water softener failure, the concentration of calcium and magnesium salts on the surface of the reverse osmosis membrane will increase sharply to form a precipitate that is difficult to dissolve in water, blocking the pores of the reverse osmosis membrane, shortening the service life of the reverse osmosis membrane and increasing equipment Maintenance costs.
Industrial water treatment equipment, drinking water treatment equipment, filling equipment, water treatment accessories are several categories.
Industrial water treatment equipment, large-scale reverse osmosis equipment for power plants, ultra-pure water equipment for medical electronics, etc., pure water equipment for watering flowers and fruits, medicinal equipment, and boiler softening equipment;
Drinking water treatment equipment Pure water equipment for the food and beverage industry, pure water mineral water equipment for water plants, drinking water equipment for rural living, direct drinking water equipment such as hotels, schools, institutions, canteens, etc.
Filling equipment vat, vial filling line, brush capping machine;
Water treatment accessories filter material, filter element, booster pump, reverse osmosis membrane, membrane shell, precision filter, flow meter, pressure gauge, ozone generator, ultraviolet sterilizer, scale inhibitor, etc.
Working process of water softener
The schematic diagram of the demineralized water equipment workflow generally consists of the following steps: five processes: backwash, salt absorption (regeneration), slow flushing (replacement), and fast flushing. All processes of different water softening equipment are very close, but there may be some additional processes due to different actual processes or control needs. Any demineralized water equipment based on sodium ion exchange is developed on the basis of these five processes. Automatic softener running program:
A. Run (Work)
Under a certain pressure (0.2-0.6Mpa) and flow rate, the raw water passes through the valve cavity of the controller and enters the container (resin tank) containing ion exchange resin. The Na + contained in the resin and the cations (Ca2 +, Mg2 +, Fe2 +) in the water ... Etc.) exchange, so that the Ca2 +, Mg2 + ion content of the effluent of the container reaches the predetermined requirements, and the softening of hard water is achieved.
B. After the backwash resin has failed, backwash it with water from bottom to top before regenerating it. The purpose of backwashing is twofold. One is to make the resin layer compacted during operation loose by backwashing, which is beneficial for the resin particles to make full contact with the regeneration solution. The first is to make the suspended matter and broken resin accumulated on the resin surface with the backwashing water. Drain, so that the water flow resistance of the exchanger will not increase.
C. Regenerative salt absorption The regeneration salt solution flows through the failed resin layer at a certain concentration and flow rate to restore the original exchange capacity.
D. Replacement (slow cleaning)
After the regeneration solution is fed in, there is still salt solution in the exchanger that is not participating in regeneration exchange, and clean water (slow-speed cleaning) using clean water that is less than or equal to the regeneration solution flow rate is used to make full use of the regeneration effect of the salt solution and reduce the amount of positive washing load.
E. Forward Washing (Quick Wash)
The purpose is to remove the regenerating waste liquid remaining in the resin layer, which is usually washed at a normal flow rate until the effluent is qualified.
F. Water injection into the regenerant tank Inject the solution into the regenerant tank to regenerate the required amount of water.
The manual type is the traditional standard method. There are mainly two types of forward flow / no top pressure counter current. Generally, two tanks of carbon steel structure are connected in parallel. According to different technological processes, each tank needs to be equipped with 8- 11 manual valves (two tanks need to be equipped with about 16-20 valves), and the salt solution is pumped into the resin tank with a special salt pump during regeneration (this kind of equipment was the main form of domestic water softening equipment) . The main features of this type of softened water equipment are: the process is simple, easy to understand, easy to operate, low cost, and suitable for the needs of large flow; , The salt pump is severely corroded and has high maintenance costs.
The automatic type domestic combination automatic type is too complicated for the use of manual equipment. In the early 1990s, a new type of equipment with a combined integrated valve as its core appeared in China. The main core component of this equipment is a multi-channel integrated valve, which changes the direction of water flow through the rotation of the valve body. Compared with traditional manual equipment, this kind of equipment occupies a much smaller area and has a higher degree of automation than traditional manual equipment. But because the control method uses time control, the control accuracy is lower during operation. Limited by design ideas, processing technology and materials, the planar integrated valve used by most equipment is prone to wear and tear, and once repaired, the possibility of repair is very small. There are many manufacturers of this type of equipment on the domestic market, and the actual quality of the products varies widely, and the operation results of many types of equipment are not satisfactory.
The imported fully automatic type has been used in the European and American countries since the 1960s to automatically design ion exchange equipment. With the development of industrial technology, multi-way valves and integrated valves that are different from domestic multi-way valves have gradually developed. Multi-way valves are mainly used. The main materials are engineering plastics and lead-free brass. Its core component is a multi-channel integrated valve. Generally, a valve plate or a piston is used to control the direction of water flow. A small motor drives a camshaft (or piston) to act. Due to the good development of foreign industrial technology, this type of equipment has been developed quite well. Product specifications range from 0.2t / h for domestic use to 70t / h for industrial use. The controller has a high degree of automation (the latest can be used with industrial Computer or general surveillance computer).
Discrete valve Full-automatic discrete valve generally adopts imported full-automatic diaphragm valve or solenoid valve, adopts a structure similar to the traditional manual method, and cooperates with a dedicated full-automatic controller (Single Chip Microcomputer or PLC) to form a water softening device. Full-automatic equipment is mainly used for the occasions with large flow, and can also be used for the transformation of traditional manual equipment. The traditional manual equipment can be transformed into automated equipment without changing the original equipment pipeline. Thereby reducing the operating labor intensity and equipment consumption.
Installation and commissioning
⒈Selection of location of soft water equipment: The water softener must be placed on a solid horizontal ground, the distance from the drainage ditch is preferably short, and the distance from the heat source such as the boiler must be more than 3 meters. It is strictly prohibited to approach acidic liquids or gases. If additional water treatment equipment (filter, deaerator) is needed, it should be reserved.
⒉Regarding the location of recycled salt shaker and resin:
It should be placed near the exchange column as much as possible. In order to make full use of the salt solution, try to shorten the size of the salt-absorbing plastic tube.
⒊About filling quartz sand and resin:
⑴Ensure that the water is evenly distributed. Try to lay 150 ~ 200mm of good quality quartz sand on the bottom of the exchange column (do not decompose to produce silicon oxides or salts).
前 Before filling the resin, check the length of the central riser for properness.
First snap the upper water dispenser into the central socket on the bottom of the automatic control head (control valve), then align the lower end of the central tube with the groove in the bottom of the exchange column, and insert the upper end into the lower end of the upper water dispenser. Rotate it clockwise into the upper thread of the exchange column in a clockwise direction, and confirm that the entire control valve screw can be smoothly screwed into the upper thread of the exchange column to confirm that the length of the central tube meets the requirements, and that the central lifting tube can be tightly connected to the valve head and Stay concentric.
⑶ After the above-mentioned trial machine head is finished working, rotate the machine head counterclockwise to remove it, and keep the center tube centered again. Align the end of the lower water distributor under the original sticking center lifting pipe at the lower end with the groove at the bottom, and use the soft Cloth or plastic tape seals the upper entrance of the central riser tube and starts to load quartz sand or resin evenly.
⑷ When filling the resin, pay attention to the balanced filling around the central lifting tube of the person. In order to ensure that the pre-calculated quantity is filled into the column, the water should be continuously injected into the exchange column to keep the air in the resin pores along with the installation process. discharge. It is the best way to maintain the water-sealed state to fill the resin. Dry resin is difficult to guarantee the correct amount of filling.
⑸ After filling the resin, screw the control valve clockwise into the threaded port on the upper end of the exchange column.
At the same time, it is required to ensure flatness.
Water softening device Note: Do not forget to install the water dispenser into the base of the control valve.
进行 After piping and power supply according to the installation diagram, conduct water test. 进出口 All inlet and outlet pipes must have independent support. Never use valve heads as support. ⑵When starting the water softener, you should first open the discharge valve of the water softener, and then Slowly open the valve of the water inlet, and ensure that the opening degree is from small to large. Do not open it too quickly to avoid resin loss.
⑶ The soft water discharged from the resin for the first time has a yellowish color, and may be acidic when the pH value is less than 7. After three to five minutes, the color of the effluent water turns to colorless, and the pH value rises to 7 (neutral). At the same time, the hardness of soft water has passed ≤0.03mmol / L (1 / 2Ca2 +, 1 / 2Mg2 +)
⑷ For boilers desperate to use demineralized water, qualified soft water can be immediately introduced into the feed water tank.
⑸ For old pipes that have been used, before they are connected to the water softener, they must pass through the water very carefully to flush away the rust, dirt, and other debris accumulated in the pipes, and it is necessary to prevent steam from entering the resin tank and causing the resin to be scrapped.
⑴Problems with the trial rotation of the regeneration program and the first preparation of brine⑴The softening equipment used for the first time must put enough solid NaCL into the regeneration salt tank, (the quantity is based on the weight of NaCL provided in the "Technical Parameter Summary Table" in the third item of the instruction manual )
下拉 Without opening the water valve, pull down the back panel and manually turn the regeneration timer to check whether the processes such as backwash, salt and small flush, large flush, water and salt production are working properly. The complete function can maintain the water preparation and salt preparation process stage. When the water is turned on, there will be soft water output, and at the same time, the soft water that dissolves NaCL will start to be fed into the salt tank. Until the end of this program time, it will switch to the automatic soft water production process. . When the total time of the water-making program set by this equipment is reached, it will automatically transfer to the backwashing, the lower salt, the small flush, the big flush, and the salt-preparing water, and then automatically and repetitively complete the water-making and regeneration process. It is necessary to add solid NaCL to the salt tank in stages and clean up the impurities in the salt tank periodically. Other tasks do not need manual work, and it is always an automatic function to continuously produce soft water.
设定 Set the time and controller according to the method described in this description. In the initial operation stage, strengthen the effluent water quality inspection and monitoring and adjust the reduction procedure according to the water quality changes to achieve the best working conditions.
足够 There is always enough solid regenerant in the salt tank to maintain saturated salt water and ensure the amount of salt used in each regeneration cycle.
⒏The drainage pipe installation system should not be installed with any valve, and the shorter the pipeline, the better, the total length is less than 6 meters, the drainage pipe should not be arranged higher, and the siphon phenomenon of the drainage pipe should be prevented.
⒐ Before soft water enters the water tank, a drain valve must be set up to eliminate the unexpected excess water quality.
⒑Adjustment of water quality and pressure fluctuations Due to the large changes in water supply hardness and pressure in some areas of China, users use flow-type or time-type water softening equipment. Prior procedures will be affected or regenerated in advance. The waste of regenerant or the delayed regeneration cannot guarantee the quality of soft water. The emergence of these two problems will bring corresponding harm to the safe operation of pressure vessel equipment such as boilers. Therefore, the following emergency measures are proposed:
First, the instructor's accurate flow meter should be set on the softened water outlet pipe, and the pressure meter should be set on the tap water inlet pipe. Operators must carefully record the changes in the water supply pressure and flow.
Second, calculate the relevant data according to the following formula, and adjust the set flow or time parameter values.
Q week =
Meaning and unit of symbol in the formula:
Q week: The total amount of softened water produced by the softening equipment during the entire operating cycle (m3 or t)
V-tree: 001 ¡Á 7 male resin filling quantity (m3)
EI: Working exchange capacity of 001 ¡Á 7 cation resin (mol / m3)
YD raw: total hardness of raw water (mmol / L)
YD soft: total hardness of soft water (mmol / L)
Q unit average: average softened water production per unit time (m3 / h or t / h)
Through formula ⑴, calculate Q week, and compare with the original set total flow value (Q setting). When Q is set to <Q week, the quality of soft water can be guaranteed.
⑵ Calculate the T week. When T is set to <T week, the quality of soft water can also be guaranteed. Otherwise the cycle flow or cycle time must be readjusted.
The principle of adjustment is to first ensure that the quality of the soft water is less than the national water quality standard (YD≤0.03mmol / L) and also have a certain economy, and both must be taken into account.
(3) Equipped with a simple analyzer and analytical reagents, during high-speed procedures, analyze the soft water quality level for the last time of each cycle.
Note: 1. When the hardness unit is mmol / L, the basic unit is determined as a monovalent cation (Na +, 1 / 2Ca2 +, 1 / 2Mg2 +).
Note: Most of the water softening equipment adopts the lower central pipe to install the water distributor, without adding quartz sand.