"It's hard to see white clothes in town"
Like most rural towns in China, after the warm winter sun rises, Sanxian Lake has a lively scene. People are organized step by step, and life is ordinary. Just walking around the town a few times, I suddenly realized a phenomenon-almost no one was wearing white clothes.
Not wearing white clothes is not a local custom or a folk taboo. All reasons point to one word-water.
The town is located in Nan County, Yiyang City, Hunan Province, and is located in the hinterland of "800 Hundred Mile Dongting". Li Qinglan, a 73-year-old town resident, told reporters that Sanxianhu Town was named after the water and thrived because of it. It was once called the "Little Nanjing" of Dongting Lake.
In the late 1970s, the water quality of Sanxian Lake began to have problems. Li Qinglan recalled that industrial wastewater, agricultural sewage, and domestic sewage were discharged into the lake for a long time, and the water quality began to deteriorate. Coupled with river siltation and decline in water transport, Sanxian Lake has become a "dumb lake" and has become a stagnant lake.
"Sometimes, industrial and agricultural sewage is discharged intensively, and a large area of lake water is black. How to drink this kind of water?" Zhao Yong, deputy head of the Water Management Station of Sanxianhu Town, told reporters. Some residents of the town drove tractors to transport water outside the town, and some dug a large pit in the fields to collect rainwater.
Around 1980, the helpless town residents laid the first well, and groundwater was taken from a depth of more than 70 meters. Looking at the clear water flowing from the faucet, the town residents celebrated for a long time. But it didn't take long for another thing to cloud everyone's minds.
"At that time, girls liked white skirts, but when they washed them with tap water, they noticed that large yellow spots appeared on the skirts." Li Qinglan said, more and more people found white clothes, white towels, white sheets, etc. All changed colors. Everyone began to suspect that there was a problem with tap water and had to try to avoid using white cloth in life. Over time, the phenomenon of "hardly seeing a white shirt in the town" appeared.
It's hard to see white clothes in town
After several more years, experts in the province found that the iron and manganese in the groundwater had seriously exceeded the standard. "The iron exceeded the standard 84 times and the manganese exceeded the standard 25 times. A chemical reaction occurred during the washing process, leaving a mark on the white clothes." Zhao Yong knew the answer.
，情况稍有改善。 In 2008, the financial department specially allocated a new water plant to Sanxian Lake. The 86-meter deep well was equipped with deep-well water removal iron and manganese equipment , and the situation slightly improved. 工序影响了供水速度，小镇每天只能分时段供水。 However, the groundwater iron and manganese in Sanxian Lake is too high, and the treatment effect is average. In addition, the water treatment equipment process affects the water supply speed, and the town can only supply water at different times of the day.
Small towns with insufficient water quality and poor water quality for a long time cut off the groundwater source in March 2015, and all the waterworks switched to lake water sources. After taking the reporter to watch the waterworks, the mayor of Sanxianhu Town frowned, "How do you say, let the two evils be the least!"
Drinking water through shallow wells
In the Mongolian Ordos City, Inner Mongolia, Dalat Banner, Zhonghexi Town, the village of Caohaitu Animal Husbandry covers an area of 250 square kilometers and has 678 villagers, most of whom depend on grazing and growing corn and forage.
Not far from the village committee, the reporter saw a dry river bed, a big tree standing alone on the shore. "It hasn't rained for more than a month, and the water in the river has dried up early!" Said the villagers. At a distance of 100 meters from the river bank, the village used a shovel to dig a two-meter-deep, approximately 200-square-meter pit to store water. The bottom of the big pit is clay, and the upper layer is sand and stone. When it rains, rainwater and river water can converge to the bottom of the big pit through the sand layer. "The last time when there was water in the riverbed, there was still some accumulation, which could irrigate farmland and pasture, but now it is bottoming out." Village branch secretary Lawai told reporters.
It is a common practice for villagers to construct a shallow water well with a depth of about 6 meters. The principle is the same as that of a large earthen pit that stores water. It collects shallow groundwater through sand filtration. "Fortunately, there is no industrial pollution nearby, and the water is relatively clean, but the drought is too long, and the water is not enough to drink." Lawai said that every family cherishes water as gold, and people and sheep drink well water on weekdays. It can only guarantee that people have water to drink, but can't care about sheep.
"Now there is no deep water well in the village." Lawai said that it would cost more than 100,000 yuan to build a deep water well, which is not a small amount for the village. The most important thing is that the village has not yet been connected to high-voltage electricity. If there is no power electricity, even if a deep water well is hit, it will not be able to pump water. "